Gardiner S.C. Old Church Slavonic: an elementary grammar. Cambridge, 1984

PREFACE

This book is intended as an introduction to Old Church Slavonic for undergraduates studying the subject as part of a course in Russian or any other Slavonic language, and for all those who want a concise outline of the earliest recorded Slavonic language. It assumes no previous knowledge of a Slavonic language and is purely descriptive. The basic grammar is followed by notes on syntax which are designed not only to describe the use of the grammatical categories, but also to provide reading material in the form of sentences illustrating the points made.

The reading selection includes three passages in a ‘normalized’ form of Old Church Slavonic, so that the student can first be introduced to the language without the additional difficulty of unexpected forms and abbreviations. Only one extract from the Gospels has been included, as most of the sentences in the section on syntax are taken from another Gospel. The other extracts are intended to show what the Old Church Slavonic texts actually look like.

I wish to express my thanks to P. Herrity for his useful suggestions, to Mrs. J. Harvey for undertaking the difficult task of typing the book, and my gratitude to J. C. Dumbreck who not only helped to correct and improve the text, but also gave me advice and encouragement throughout. Any errors remaining are, of course, my own.

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Title 179
CONTENTS 183
PREFACE 186
0. INTRODUCTION 1
0.1 What is Old Church Slavonic? 1
0.2 Textbooks 3
0.3 The texts 5
0.4 The alphabets 12
Table of alphabets and numerals 16
1.0 PHONOLOGY 18
1.1 Vowels 18
1.2 Consonants 19
1.3 Intrasyllabic harmoy 19
1.4 Correspondence with spelling 20
1.41 Status of ja, ju, je 20
1.42 The phoneme / j / 21
1.43 Jь and ji 21
1.44 Palatal sonants 21
1.5 Jers 21
1.6 Vocalic l and r 23
1.7 The structure of the syllable 24
1.71 Voice assimilation 24
1.72 Assimilation of double consonants 25
1.73 Other clusters 25
1.8 Non-automatic changes 25
1.81 Palatalization of velars (i) 25
1.82 Palatalization of velars (ii) 26
1.83 Fronting of vowels after palatal consonants 26
1.9 Prefixes and prepositions ending in consonants 26
2.0 MORPHOLOGY 28
2.1 Nouns 28
2.111 Masculine and neuter o-stems 29
2.112 Masculine and neuter jo-stems 30
2.12 Feminine a-stems and ja-stems 33
2.121 Feminine nouns with nominative singular in -i 35
2.1211 Rabyni type 35
2.1212 Ladii type 35
2.122 Masculine a-stems and ja-stems 35
2.13 i-declension 36
2.14 u-declension 37
2.15 Consonantal declensions 38
2.151 n-declension 38
2.152 s-declension and t-declension 39
2.153 The declension of dini 40
2.154 r-declension 41
2.16 u-declension 41
2.17 Nouns in -inъ, -telъ, and -аль 42
2.2 Pronouns 42
2.21 Personal pronouns 42
2.22 Demonstrative pronouns 43
2.221 Demonstrative pronouns hard declension 44
2.222 Demonstrative pronouns mixed declension 45
2.223 Demonstrative pronouns palatal declension 46
2.224 Interrogative pronouns 48
2.225 Eterъ, etc. 49
2.226 The declension of vьsь 49
2.3 Adjectives 50
2.31 Adjectives (Nominal declension) 50
2.32 Adjectives (Pronominal declension) 53
2.33 Comparison of adjectives 54
2.331 Comparison of adjectives with consonantal change 55
2.332 Comparison of adjectives with – он – suffix 55
2.333 Irregular comparatives 55
2.334 Comparative formed with -ej suffix 56
2.335 Comparative with -ъk/-okъ suffix retained 56
2.336 Pronominal declension of comparative 56
2.337 Superlative 58
2.4 Numerals 58
2.41 1 – 4 58
2.42 5+ 59
2.43 100 and 1000 60
2.44 Ordinals 60
2.5 Classification of OCS verbs by stem; the verb 61
2.51 Present tense 70
2.52 Imperative 72
2.53 Present participle active 73
2.54 Present participle passive 74
2.55 Aorist 74
2.551 Asigmatic aorist 74
2.552 Sigmatic aorist 75
2.553 -охъ aorist 76
2.56 Imperfect 77
2.57 Past participle active 80
2.58 Past participle passive 82
2.591 z-participle 84
2.5912 Compound tenses 84
2.5913 Perfect 84
2.5914 Pluperfect 85
2.5915 Conditional 85
2.592 Non-finite forms of the verb 86
2.5921 Infinitive 86
2.5922 Supine 86
2.5923 Verbal noun 86
2.6 Adverbs 87
SYNTAX 89
1 Use of numbers and cases 89
The dual 89
The nominative 89
The accusative 91
The genitive 94
The dative 100
The instrumental 104
The locative 109
The vocative 111
2 Adjectives 111
3 The personal pronoun 114
4 The verb 116
The present tense 116
The expression of future meaning 118
The so-called ‘periphrastic future’ 120
Note on aspect 121
The aorist 122
The imperfect 123
The perfect and pluperfect 125
The conditional 128
Participles 131
The infinitive 137
The supine 139
The verb ‘to be’ 140
Impersonal verbs 141
READING SELECTION 143
1. Tsar Samuel’s inscription in memory of his father, mother and brother 143
2. Themonk Khrabr’s defence of the Slavonic alphabet 144
3. From the Life of Methodiu 145
4. The alphabet prayer 146
5. From St. Matthew*s Gospel, Chapter IV, verse 1-11 147
6. A prayer on going to bed 148
7. A prayer on planting a vine 148
8. Psalm No. 96 149
GLOSSARY 150

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